Friday, 12 July 2013

Geography

The area of the city, according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, is 795.697 km2, and 238.3230 km2 are the urban and 557.334 km2 remaining constitute the countryside. It is located at 22°54′21″S, 47°03′39″W and is at a distance of 96 kilometers northwest of São Paulo. Its neighboring cities are Paulínia, Jaguariúna and Pedreira, north; Morungaba, Itatiba and Valinhos in the east; Itupeva, Indaiatuba and Monte Mor, south, and Hortolândia in the west.

Ecology

Most of the original vegetation that had in the city, the Atlantic, was devastated. Like other 13 municipalities in the metropolitan region of Campinas, the city suffers a severe environmental stress, and Campinas is considered one of the areas subject to flooding and silting and has less than 5% of vegetation cover.

To try to reverse this situation, several projects have been and are being conducted and planned, such as building corridors, such as regulation of the Management Plan of Environmental Preservation Area (APA) in Campinas. There are also several environmental projects to combat the destruction of riparian forests located on the river london, which, as previously mentioned, has a high rate of pollution of its waters. Today Campinas houses the Area of Relevant Ecological Interest (ARIE) Santa Geneva, 251 acres (1.02 km2), established in 1985 and regulated by the Brazilian Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA), the city of Campinas, Fundação José Pedro de Oliveira. Today is the second largest urban forest of Brazil, behind only the Forest of Tijuca, in Rio de Janeiro.

The city also has large forests, such as Jequitibás Wood (installed in 1881), Forest Grove and the Germans of Guarantees.

Climate View Campinas during a storm.

The climate is tropical but mitigated by elevation (Köppen type Cwa), with lower rainfall in winter and annual average temperature of 22.4 °C, with dry and mild winters (rarely too cold) and rainy summers with warm to hot temperatures. The warmest month in February, has an average temperature of 24.9 °C, with an average maximum of 30.0 °C and minimum 19.9 °C. And the coldest month, July, 18.5 °C and 24.8 °C and 12.3 °C average maximum and minimum, respectively. Fall and spring are transitional seasons.

The average annual rainfall is 1424.5 mm and the driest month in August, when there are only 22.9 mm. In January, the rainiest month, the average is 280.3 mm. In recent years, however, the hot, dry days during the winter have been increasingly frequent, often surpassing 30 °C, especially between July and September. In August 2010, for example, the rainfall in Campinas was only 0 mm. During the dry season and long dry spells in the middle of the rainy season are also common records of fires in the hills and thickets, especially in rural areas of the city, which contributes to deforestation and the release of pollutants into the atmosphere, further damaging the quality air. The lowest temperature recorded in the city was −1.5 °C on June 25, 1918. The highest temperature was 39.0 °C, observed on 17 November 1985. The highest cumulative rainfall recorded in 24 hours in the city between June 1988 and October 2008 was 143.4 mm in 25 days May 2005. Between 1890 and 2004 there were 41 occurrences of frost in Campinas. The most recent was on July 18, 2000, when the minimum temperature reached 2.2 °C. There are also occasional episodes of strong winds, with gusts exceeding 100 km / h, and training records were made in the city day May 4, 2001 and March 9, 2008.

The wet season is from mid-October to mid-April, with heavier rains particularly in December, January, February and early March, and the dry season is from mid-May to mid-September. Average rainfall is 24.3 mm in August and 267.8 mm in January. Average humidity ranges from 37% (August) to 56% (January).

In the region around Campinas near the state of Minas Gerais there are a number of cities which enjoy an even milder mountain climate, such as Serra Negra, Socorro, Lindóia and Águas de Lindóia, where several water spas are located.

Climate data for Campinas, Brazil (1890–2012) Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C (°F) 36.1 (97) 35.8 (96.4) 34.5 (94.1) 33.6 (92.5) 32.4 (90.3) 30.0 (86) 31.2 (88.2) 35.0 (95) 37.8 (100) 37.8 (100) 37.8 (100) 36.8 (98.2) 37.8 (100) Average high °C (°F) 28.9 (84) 29.1 (84.4) 28.7 (83.7) 27.2 (81) 25.0 (77) 24.0 (75.2) 24.2 (75.6) 26.1 (79) 27.0 (80.6) 27.8 (82) 28.3 (82.9) 28.4 (83.1) 27.1 (80.8) Average low °C (°F) 18.6 (65.5) 19.0 (66.2) 18.2 (64.8) 16.2 (61.2) 13.6 (56.5) 12.0 (53.6) 11.4 (52.5) 12.6 (54.7) 14.4 (57.9) 15.9 (60.6) 16.9 (62.4) 18.0 (64.4) 15.5 (59.9) Record low °C (°F) 10.1 (50.2) 10.4 (50.7) 10.0 (50) 3.8 (38.8) 0.2 (32.4) −1.5 (29.3) −0.2 (31.6) 0.2 (32.4) 1.8 (35.2) 5.2 (41.4) 8.0 (46.4) 9.5 (49.1) −1.5 (29.3) Precipitation mm (inches) 280.3 (11.035) 215.9 (8.5) 162.3 (6.39) 58.6 (2.307) 63.3 (2.492) 35.4 (1.394) 43.3 (1.705) 22.9 (0.902) 59.5 (2.343) 123.5 (4.862) 155.6 (6.126) 203.9 (8.028) 1,424.5 (56.083)  % humidity 57 54 50 47 46 43 41 36 43 46 49 54 47 Source: IAC - Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (Temperaturas) / CEPAGRI-UNICAMP (Outros dados)

No comments:

Post a comment